Given limited Russian resources and lack of legitimate military missions, only about 4, of these 12, warheads were serviceable and maintained enough to be deployed. Of the 4, operational warheads, some 2, were deployed on strategic systems and some 2, on nonstrategic systems. Beginning in the s, the arsenals of the United Kingdom , France , and China also underwent significant change and consolidation.
Britain eliminated its land-based army, tactical naval, and air nuclear missions, so that its arsenal, which contained some warheads in the s, had just warheads in Of these, fewer than were operational, all on its ballistic missile submarine fleet. Meanwhile, France reduced its arsenal from some operational warheads at the end of the Cold War to about in , eliminating several types of nuclear weapon systems.
The Chinese stockpile remained fairly steady during the s and then started to grow at the beginning of the 21st century. By China had about warheads in its stockpile, some of them operational and the rest in reserve or retirement. Israel maintained an undeclared nuclear stockpile of 60 to 80 warheads, but any developments were kept highly secret.
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India was estimated to have 60 to 80 assembled warheads and Pakistan about 70 to North Korea , which joined the nuclear club in , may have produced enough plutonium by for as many as 8 to 12 warheads, though it was not clear that any of these was operational. Nuclear weapon. Article Media. Info Print Print.
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